Introduction to Islam


The literal meaning of Islam is peace; surrender of one’s will i.e. losing oneself for the sake of God and surrendering one’s own pleasure for the pleasure of God. The message of Islam was revealed to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings on him) 1, 400 years ago. It was revealed through angel Gabriel (on whom be peace) and was thus preserved in the Holy Quran. The Holy Quran carries a Divine guarantee of safeguard from interpolation and it claims that it combines the best features of the earlier scriptures.
The prime message of Islam is the Unity of God, that the Creator of the world is One and He alone is worthy of worship and that Muhammad (peace and blessings on him) is His Messenger and Servant. The follower of this belief is thus a Muslim - a Muslim’s other beliefs are: God’s angels, previously revealed Books of God, all the prophets, from Adam to Jesus (peace be on them both), the Day of Judgement and indeed the Decree of God. A Muslim has five main duties to perform, namely; bearing witness to the Unity of God and Muhammad (peace and blessings on him) as His Messenger, observing the prescribed prayer, payment of Zakat, keeping the fasts of Ramadhan and performing the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Islam believes that each person is born pure. The Holy Quran tells us that God has given human beings a choice between good and evil and to seek God’s pleasure through faith, prayer and charity. Islam believes that God created mankind in His image and by imbuing the attributes of God on a human level mankind can attain His nearness. Islam’s main message is to worship God and to treat all God’s creation with kindness and compassion. Rights of parents in old age, orphans and the needy are clearly stated. Women’s rights were safeguarded 1,400 years ago when the rest of the world was in total darkness about emancipation. Islamic teachings encompass every imaginable situation and its rules and principles are truly universal and have stood the test of time.
In Islam virtue does not connote forsaking the bounties of nature that are lawful. On the contrary one is encouraged to lead a healthy, active life with the qualities of kindness, chastity, honesty, mercy, courage patience and politeness. In short, Islam has a perfect and complete code for the guidance of individuals and communities alike. As the entire message of Islam is derived from the Holy Quran and indeed the Sunnah and Hadith (the traditions and practices of the Holy Prophet, peace and blessings on him) it is immutable in the face of change in time and place. It may appear rigid to the casual eye, in actual fact it is most certainly an adaptable way of life regardless of human changes.
Islam teaches that the path to spiritual development is open to all. Any individual who searches the One Creator can seek nearness to God through sincere and earnest worship; it is central to establishing a relationship with the Almighty. This positive message for humanity fills hearts with hope and courage.
At present there are 1.5 billion Muslims worldwide and they form the majority in more than 50 countries of the world. Today Islam is the fastest growing faith in the world - its beautiful message is reaching millions in the far corner of the earth.

Attributes of Allah
Allah is the proper name of God, however, we know Him generally through His attributes. These attributes describe how Allah manifests Himself to us. God's attributes are innumerable since human intellect cannot possibly comprehend every aspect of the Supreme Being. A Hadith of the Holy Prophet (peace be on him) makes mention of Ninety Nine names of Allah commonly known as al- Asmaul Husna, the Most Names. In the Holy Quran we read: "And to Allah alone belong all perfect attributes. So call Him by these. And leave alone those who deviate from the right way with respect to His Attributes." (7:181).
"Allah - there is no God but He, the Living, the Self-Subsisting and All-Sustaining. Slumber seizes Him not, nor sleep. To Him belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that will intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them; and they encompass nothing of His knowledge except what He pleases. His knowledge extends over the heavens and the earth; and the care of them burdens Him not;and He is the High, the Great." (2:256)

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is a lustrous niche, wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a glittering star. It is lit from blessed tree - an olive - neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would well-nigh glow forth even though fire touched it not.Light upon light! Allah guides to His light whomsoever He will. And Allah sets forth parables to men, and Allah know all things full well.This light is now lit in houses with regard to which Allah has ordained that they be exalted and that His name be remembered in them, Therein is He glorified in the mornings and the evenings (24:36-37)

"He is Allah, and there is no God beside Him, the Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is Gracious, the Merciful.He is Allah, and there is no God beside Him, the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace, the Bestower of Security, the Protector, the Mighty, the Subduer, the Exalted. Holy is Allah far above that which they associate with Him.He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner. His are the most Beautiful Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Him, and He is the Mighty the Wise.(59: 23-25)

Abu Huraira (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated: The Holy Prophet (Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him) said, "Allah has ninety nine Names, one hundred less one; and who memorized them all by heart will enter Paradise." (Bukhari, The Book of Tauhid.

Chronology of Events in the Life of Muhammad (PBUH)
Contributed by: Dr. Rasheed S. Aazzam

The Holy Prophet of Islam, Muhammad, peace be upon him, born an orphan His father Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, had died a few months before the birth of his son.
0 years9 or 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal 52 or 53 BH April 570 or 571 AD

Hadrat Halima Sadiyya, may Allah be pleased with her, appointed wet nurse.8 days

Return to Mecca under the care of his mother6 Years46 BH 577 AD

Mother, Hadrat Amina, may Allah be pleased with her, passes away6 Years46 BH 577 AD

Grandfather, Hadrat Abdul-Muttalib, may Allah be pleased with him, died8 Years44 BH 579 AD

First visit to Syria with a trading caravan 12 years 40 BH, 583 AD12 Years40 BH 583 AD

Pledge of Fudul to help the needy and the oppressed15 Years37 BH 586 AD

Second journey to Syria for trade as an agent of Hadrat Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her25 Years28 BH 595 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Khadija, may Allah be pleased with her25 Years28 BH 595 AD

Birth of a son, Hadrat Qasim (may Allah be pleased with him)28 Years25 BH 598 AD

Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Zainab, may Allah be pleased with her30 Years23 BH 600 AD

Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Ruqayya, may Allah be pleased with her33 Years20 BH 603 AD

Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Um-e-Kalthum, may Allah be pleased with her34 years19 BH 604 AD

Renovation of Ka'aba and the placement of Hajr-e-Aswad (Black Stone)35 years18 BH 605 AD

Birth of his daughter, Hadrat Fatima, may Allah be pleased with her35 years18 BH605 AD

Hadrat Jibrail bought the First Revelation in the Cave of Hira40 Year12 BH 610 AD

Revelation of the Holy Quran continues, Ministry of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is established. Hadrat Khadija (the wife), Hadrat Abu Bakr (the best friend), Hadrat Ali (the dearest cousin) and 
Hadrat Zaid (a freed slave and adopted son), may Allah be pleased with 
them all, accept Islam
40 Years 6 monthsFriday18 Ramadan 12 BH 14 August 610 AD

Open invitation to the people of Mecca to join Islam under Allah's command43 Years9 BH 614 AD

A group of Muslims emigrates to Abyssinia46 Years7 BH 615 AD

Blockade of Shi'b Abi-Talib46 Years7 BH 30 September 615 AD

Hadrat Hamza (paternal uncle) and Hadrat Umar, may Allah be pleased 
with them, accept Islam
46 Years6 BH 616 AD

Hadrat Abu Talib, (beloved uncle and guardian) and only a few days later, Hadrat Khadija, the most beloved wife, may Allah be pleased with them, passed away49 YearsRamadan 3 BH January 619 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Sau'da, may Allah be pleased with her49 Years3 BH 619 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her49 Years3 BH 619 AD

Journey to Ta'if, about 40 miles from Mecca, for calling the citizens of Ta'if 
to Islam
49 Years3 BH 619 AD

Journey of Mi'raj. Five daily prayers made obligatory for Muslims50 Years27 Rajab 2 BH 8 March 620 AD

Deputation from Medina accepts Islam50 Years2 BH 620 AD

First Pledge of 'Aq'ba'52 YearsDhul Haj, 1 BH 621 AD

Second Pledge of 'Aq'ba52 Years3 months BH June 622 AD

Hijra (migration) from Mecca to the cave of Thaur52 YearsFriday 27 Safar 10 September 622

Emigration to Medina begins52 YearsMonday 1 Rabi-ul-Awwal 13 September 622 AD

Arrival at Medina after the first Friday Prayer at Quba's Mosque53 Years12 Rabi-ul-Awwal 1st year AH 24 September 622 AD

Construction of the Holy Prophet's Mosque at Medina. Hadrat Bilal's call 
for Prayer (Adhan)
53 Years1st year AH 622 AD

Brotherhood pacts between Ansar (Muslims from Medina) and Muhajirin (immigrants from Mecca)53 Years1st year AH 622 AD

Treaty with Jews of Medina53 Years1st year AH

Permission to fight in self-defense is granted by Allah53 Years12 Safar 2 AH 14 August 623 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Waddan53 Years29 Safar 2 AH 31 August 623

Ghazwa (Battle) of Safwan54 Years2 AH 623 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) Dul-'Ashir54 Years2 AH 623 AD

Hadrat Salman Farsi, may Allah be pleased with him, accepts Islam54 Years2 AH 624 AD

Revelation and change of Qibla (direction to face for Formal Prayers, Salat) towards Ka'ba Fasting in the month of Ramadan becomes obligatory54 YearsSha'abn 2 AH February 624 A

Ghazwa (Battle) of Badr54 Years12-17 Ramadan 2 AH March 8-13, 624 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Salim54 Years25 Ramadan 2 AH 21 March 524 AD

Initiation of Eid-ul-Fitr and Zakat-ul-Fitr (Alms at the Eid-ul-Fitr).54 Years28 Ramadan / 1 Shawwal 2 AH 24/25 March 624 AD

Zakat becomes obligatory for Muslims54 YearsShawwal 2 AH April 624 AD

Nikah and Marriage ceremony of Hadrat Fatima, may Allah be pleased 
with her
54 YearsShawwal 2 AH April 624 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Qainuqa'54 Years15 Shawwal 2 AH 10 April 624 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Sawiq54 Years5 Dhul-Haj 2 AH 29 May 624 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Ghatfan54 YearsMuharram 3 AH July 624 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Bahran55 YearsRabi-us-Sani 3 AH October 624 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Hafsa, may Allah be pleased with her55 YearsShaban 3 AH January 625 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Uhad55 Years6 Shawwal 3 AH 22 March 625

Ghazwa (Battle) of Humra-ul-Asad55 Years8 Shawwal 3 AH 24 March 625 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Zainab Bint Khazima, may Allah be pleased with her55 YearsDhul-Haj 3 AH May 625 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Banu Nudair56 YearsRabi-ul-Awwal 4 AH August 625 AD

Prohibition of Drinking in Islam56 YearsRabi-ul-Awwal 4 AH August 625 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Dhatur-Riqa56 YearsJamadi-ul-Awwal 4 AH October 625 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Um-e-Salma, may Allah be pleased with her56 YearsShawwal 4 AH March 626 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Badru-Ukhra56 YearsDhi Qad 4 AH April 626

Ghazwa (Battle) of Dumatul-Jandal57 Years25 Rabi-ul-Awwal 5 AH

Ghazwa (Battle) of Banu Mustalaq Nikah with Hadrat Jawariya bint Harith, may Allah be pleased with her57 Years3 Shaban 5 AH 28 December 626 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Zainab bint Hajash, may Allah be pleased with her57 YearsShawwal 5 AH February 627 AD

Revelation for Hijab, rules of modesty57 Years1 Dhi Qa'd 5 AH 24 March 627 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Ahzab or Khandaq (Ditch)57 Years8 Dhi Qa'd 5 AH 31 March 627 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Quraiza57 YearsDhul-Haj 5 AH April 627 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Bani Lahyan57 Years1 Rabi-ul-Awwal 6A H 21 July 627 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Dhi Qard or Ghaiba58 YearsRabi-ul-Akhar 6 AH August 627 AD

Treaty of Hudaibiyya58 Years1 Dhi Qa'd 6 AH 13 March 628 AD

Prohibition of Marriage with non-believers58 YearsDhi Qa'd 6 AH March 628 AD

Marriage with Hadrat Habiba, may Allah be pleased with her58 YearsDhul-Haj 6 AH April 628 AD

Invitation sent to various rulers to accept Islam58 Years1 Muharram 7AH May 628 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Khaibar Return of Muslims from Abyssinia. Marriage with Hadrat Safiyya, may Allah be pleased with her. Ghazwa (Battle) of Wadiyul-Qura and Taim.58 YearsMuharram 7 AH June 628 AD

Performance of Umra (Umratul-Qada) Marriage with Hadrat Maimuna, may Allah be pleased with her59 YearsDhi Qa'd 7 AH March 629 AD

Hadrat Khalid bin Walid and Hadrat Umar bin Al-'Aas, may Allah be pleased with both, accept Islam60 YearsSafar 8 AH June 629 AD

Ghazwa of Muta60 YearsJamadi-ul-Awwal 8 AH August 629 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Mecca and Fall of Mecca60 Years10 Ramadan 8 AH 1 January 630 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Hunain (or Autas or Hawazan) and Ghazwa (Battle) of br>Ta'if60 YearsShawwal 8 AH January 630 AD

Arrival in Ja'rana Deputation from Hawazan accepts Islam60 Years5 Dhi Qa'd 8 AH 24 February 630 AD

Regular establishment of Department of Zakat (Alms) and Sadaqa 
(Charity), and appointment of administrative officers
60 YearsMuharram, 9 AH April 630 AD

Deputation from Ghadra accepts Islam60 YearsSafar 9 AH May 630 AD

Deputation from Balli accepts Islam61 YearsRabi-ul-Awwal, 9 AH June 630 AD

Ummul-Muminin Hadrat Mariya, may Allah be pleased with her, gave birth 
to a son, Hadrat Ibrahim, may Allah be pleased with him
61 YearsJamadi-ul-Akhar, 9 AH August 630 AD

Ghazwa (Battle) of Tabuk, the last great battle lead by the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him61 YearsRajab, 9AH October 630 AD

Ordinance of Jizya, tax on non-believers seeking protection from Muslims and exemption from military service in defense of the country they were 
living in as its citizens
61 YearsRajab 9 AHOctober 630 AD

Pilgrimage journey of Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddique, may Allah be pleased with him61 YearsDhi Qa'd, 9 AHFebruary 631 AD

Hajj (pilgrimage of Ka'ba in Mecca) made Obligatory by Allah Interest is prohibited in Islam61 YearsDeputation Tai, Hamadan, Bani Asad and Bani Abbas, all accept Islam

Deputation from Ghuttan accepts Islam62 YearsRamadan, 10AH 631 AD

Departure from Medina for Mecca for Hajjatul-Wida (Farewell Pilgrimage)62 Years25 Dhi Qa'd 10 AH 23 February 632 AD

Entry into Mecca for Hajjatul-Wida (Farewell Pilgrimage)62 Years4 Dhul-Haj 10 AH 1 March 632 AD

Hajjatul-Wida, departure for 'Arafat, Farewell Sermon Received the last revelation from Allah62 YearsFriday 9 Dhul Hajj 10 AH 6 March 632 AD

Return from Mana, Hajjatul-Wida62 Years13 Dhul-Hajj 10 AH 10 March 632 AD

Arrival of deputations from Nakha' Last deputation received by the Holy Prophet, peace be upon him62 Years15 Muharram 11 AH 11 April 632 AD

Sarya Usama bin Zaid, may Allah be pleased with him, last successful military mission during the Holy Prophet's life62 Years28 Safar 11 AH 24 May 632 AD

The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, falls ill62 YearsMonday 29 Safar 11 AH 25 May 632 AD

The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, lead the last Salat four days before his departure from this world62 YearsWednesday 8 Rabi-ul-Awwal 11 AH 3 June 632 AD

The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, offered his last Prayer in 
congregation in the Mosque lead by Hadrat Abu Bakr, may Allah be 
pleased with him
63 YearsMonday 12 Rabi-ul-Awwal 11 AH 7 June 632 AD

The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, passed away63 YearsInna lillahe wa inna elaihe rajioon

Janaza (funeral) Prayer and burial63 YearsWednesday 14 Rabi-ul-Awwal 11 AH 9 June 632 AD

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